Types of Water Distribution Systems

Today, properties and buildings in a local community need a robust water distribution system for a continuous supply of water. At its core, the water distribution system consists of a supply network with hydraulic and hydrologic engineered components.

In fact, these parts can supply portable water from a well or treatment plan straight to consumers. In a modern sense, a water distribution system ensures flawless collection, storage, treatment, and, of course, distribution of water at different levels.

Although the mechanics of water distribution systems are simple to understand, the issue usually stems from whether or not the system can meet future water demands. Oftentimes, there is an urgent need to make adjustments so that the water distribution system can cater to the needs of the local community.

Solid Water Distribution System Requirements

For starters, the water distribution system has to meet specific pressure requirements to become functional. In addition, these pressure requirements have to be observed before setting up a new water distribution system.

One of the requirements to set up a water distribution system is to have fire-fighting machinery. When it comes to residential districts, 60 psi of tire pressure is recommended. On the other hand, there has to be a 75 psi of minimum pressure for commercial districts.

When it comes to water distribution pipes, the quality of water cannot deteriorate over time. Similarly, another requirement to set up a water distribution system is to make sure intended regions get sufficient head pressure and are capable to receive the water in the first place.

Also, one of the fundamental requirements to install a water distribution system is to make sure it is over the sewer lines. Ideally, water distribution pipes must be installed at least one-meter distance from sewer lines. And to minimize leakage damages, make sure the water distribution and pressurization are tight. In case of a repair, make sure the layout of the water distribution system does not impact the water supply of consumers.

4 Essential Types of Water Distribution System

Here are the four major kinds of water distribution systems used across the world:

Grind Iron System

As the title suggests, this type of water distribution system has water branches and mains that are installed and laid out in rectangles. Grind iron system is one of the most used, efficient, and robust water distribution systems in the world. One of the perks of installing a grind iron water distribution system is that it minimizes potential pollution because of stagnation.

Whether it’s water circulation or water flow, the grind iron system comes without dead ends. Grind iron system has its limitations, but the functionalities of this type of water distribution system ensure a continuous stream of water supply. In a technical sense, the supply line works through the main area and cuts off the branch in perpendicular directions.

Also, the interconnected sub-mains are departed by branch lines. In commercial cities where there is a need for rectangular planning, this type of water distribution system works wonders. One of the best features of the grind iron water distribution system is that it interconnects all pipes and leaves no room for dead ends.

Ring Systems

In this type of water distribution system, rings are placed on peripheral sub-mains and roads that don’t have branches and connections. However, just like the grind iron system, this system follows the same pattern to ensure a consistent flow of water.

But unlike the grind iron system, the ring connection and water supply of the ring system can stem from multiple directions. One of the main advantages of installing and using a ring system is that it is easy to use and maintain.

In fact, it just requires a few cut-off valves and minimum maintenance and operational cost. On top of all, laying pipes in this type of water distribution system is straightforward. Another perk of using ring water is that it does not involve stagnation throughout the water supply.

Dead-End System

These types of water distribution systems are used in areas where there are no definite, traditional, or strict road patterns. In comparison, the dead-end system is more cost-effective than other water distribution systems. The main advantage of using the dead-end system is that it allows easy installation of pipes.

On top of cost-effectiveness, dead-end water distribution systems can determine pressure and discharges without difficulty. And that’s because dead-end systems use a fewer number of valves as opposed to other water distribution systems.

Radial System

Radical water distribution systems come into play when it comes to multiple zones that require different modes of water supply. In this type of water distribution system, the water is pumped to the main reservoir, which should be at the center of each zone.

One of the perks of installing and using this type of water distribution is that it comes with diverse properties and can meet the needs of each zone. Not to mention, radical water distribution systems also make it easier to calculate pipe sizes. The water distribution in the radical system has high pressure and high velocity. And due to swift charge, radical water distribution system makes sure head loss is low.

High Water Demand and Challenges

Essentially, the water distribution system is part of the water supply network. Usually, the challenge of any water distribution system is to meet the high user demands of the increasing population. In this day and age, more innovations in water supply systems have made it efficient and cost-effective to collect, reserve, treat, and supply water between water sources and consumers.

In fact, sources of available water are prone to change and mostly depend on the season. It makes all the more reason to realize and recognize that engineers use different water sources for different purposes and activities.

Final Thoughts

Whether it’s a residential or commercial need, a water supply network is put in place to deliver water from multiple. Plus, the supplied water to households and commercial spaces has to be meet appropriate pressure, quantity, and quality standards.

You may not be aware of it but the water distribution system dates back to millennias. However, without advanced tech innovations, water distribution systems were not as efficient as they are right now. In hindsight, it would be fair to state that the water distribution system has become integral to modern human civilization.